Bridgeport Sunday Herald, Jan. 26, 1902, p. 4

"Suppose there were a horizontal rudder [elevator] in front of our flying machine which could be set at any angle, up or down; now, if the machine was in motion and the air stationary, and the plate set at an upward angle, then the corresponding upward thrust would certainly cause the machine to rise at an upward course until the same plate is again set horizontal. It will also cause the machine to descend if you set the plate at a downward, slanting angle. So there we have a very effective way of steering a flying machine, up or down and also provide for longitudinal stability, providing the speed of the machine is high; And as for steering on either side, a vertical rudder may be used with the same effect. The reason a flying machine has never been steered is because they have insufficient power and therefore insufficient speed and are just the same as a steamboat lying in quiet water. Without any motion to either water or steamboat, it cannot be steered."